By Colin Heywood
During this vigorous and available ebook, Colin Heywood explores the altering reviews and perceptions of formative years from the early center a long time to the start of the 20 th century. Heywood examines the various ways that humans have considered formative years as a level of lifestyles, the relationships of kids with their households and friends, and the stories of children at paintings, in class and by the hands of assorted welfare associations. the purpose is to put the historical past of youngsters and formative years firmly in its social and cultural context, with out wasting sight of the various person reports that experience come right down to us in diaries, autobiographies and oral testimonies.
Heywood argues that there's a merciless paradox on the middle of early life some time past. at the one hand, fabric stipulations for kids have usually more desirable within the West, even if belatedly and erratically, and they're now extra valued than some time past. however, the enterprise of getting ready for maturity has develop into extra advanced in city and business societies, because the younger face a bewildering array of decisions and expectations.
A background of youth can be a vital creation to the topic for college students of heritage, the social sciences and cultural experiences.
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Extra resources for A History of Childhood: Children and Childhood in the West from Medieval to Modern Times
On the other hand, the latest changes enacted in 2000 were incremental in nature. In addition to the change in indexation rules, the beneﬁt level provided by the Employees’ Pension Insurance scheme was immediately curtailed by 5 percent. A further 10 percent reduction will be phased in over the next twenty years. Also the share of National Pension beneﬁts funded by general tax revenues (rather than earmarked contributions) has increased from zero to about one-third. According to current forecasts, this will do something to limit the expected increase in contribution rates (to about 28 rather than 34 percent) in 2050.
A standard way of representing the sex and age structure of a population at a given point in time is to display the data in the form of a so-called population pyramid. That expression is actually a little outdated. A pyramid—with many young people at the bottom, fewer and fewer people as we go up the age scale—is what one would get if the population had been growing for several decades without ever encountering shocks such as wars, epidemics, or periods of extreme economic hardship or uncertainty.
2 Public Support for the Old Public support for the aged plays an important role in the ﬁscal systems of virtually all industrialized countries. 1 This prompts two questions. One is why, the other is how. We will deal with the ﬁrst question in chapter 7. Here we touch brieﬂy on the second. Suppose it has been decided that every person over a certain age should get a pension. One way to implement this decision is to give the state the monopoly of supplying the service. Another is to oblige everyone to buy an annuity from a private institution of their choice (in much the same way as motorists are obliged, in many countries, to buy third-party insurance), and leave it for the tax-beneﬁt system to redistribute consumption from the rich to the poor in the usual way.
A History of Childhood: Children and Childhood in the West from Medieval to Modern Times by Colin Heywood