By Theodor Finkelstein
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Extra info for Air Engines
To minimize dead volume, the space between the regenerator stacks and the cooler was filled with pieces of broken glass, which also acted as part of the regenerator matrix. The cylinder bottom, which in all early hot-air engines was liable to burn out, was thickened up appreciably and an air pump (not shown in the diagram) with a delivery pressure of about 150 lb/in2 was used. Great care was taken to make this engine airtight under the high pressures used. Quoting from the specifications: ‘....
The left end of the cylinder was therefore heated from inside, as well as from the outside, by passing the products of combustion from the fire into an annular heating jacket, which surrounded the cylinder, before exhausting through the smoke stack H. In order to increase the transfer of heat from the fire to the working fluid, two cylindrical metal shields were fitted. One of these surrounded the firebox and was fixed to the cylinder, and the other shield was attached to the feed piston and reciprocated in the annular space between the firebox and the other shield.
On the circular phase diagram, each of the four quadrants corresponds to one of the main phases. The enclosed working fluid is represented as a rectangle whose area corresponds to the variable volume, with the position of the regenerator indicated by a dotted line. The temperature of the working fluid is indicated by cross-hatching that portion which is at the higher value. The sequence of events is clockwise, as indicated by arrows. At phase point a the volume of the low-temperature fluid is a maximum.
Air Engines by Theodor Finkelstein