By Perminder Sachdev
This quantity presents the 1st finished account of the medical and medical elements of akathisia and similar syndromes corresponding to stressed legs syndrome (RLS), different kinds of motor restlessness, and neuroleptic-induced dysphoria. the main target is on drug-induced akathisia and its a variety of subtypes. the writer explores its courting to the restlessness as a result of different neurological issues, offers a brand new synthesis of the pathophysiological mechanisms of akathisia, and gives arguments for brand spanking new operational standards for the study prognosis of drug-induced akathisia. concepts for the size of akathisia also are mentioned, as are therapy ways. The ebook should be really helpful for psychiatrists, neurologists, and different physicians looking a greater realizing of those disabling syndromes.
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Extra resources for Akathisia and Restless Legs
Studies of agitation in dementia have included a range of unacceptable behaviours under the term agitated behaviours (Cohen-Mansfield and Billig, 1986; Sinha et al 1992). These include hostility, aggression, destructiveness, disruption of others' activities, uncooperativeness, noncompliance, attentionseeking, sexual inappropriateness, wandering, hoarding and self-injury. This broad conceptualization may be misleading since the different behaviours included may have diverse aetiologies, may not be always associated with subjective distress and may necessitate different interventions.
Infants may manifest feeding difficulties, poor sleep, 'colic' and excessive crying. Toddlers are often described as children 'who never walked but ran' and are difficult to contain in their cribs or seats. Two-year-olds are 'into everything', unable to stick to any form of play, 'driven' from one object or situation to the next, prone to accidents and 'fearless'. By the age of 3 or 4, impulsivity, lack of concentration and poor frustration tolerance become more apparent. Disciplinary problems come to the fore, and interpersonal and scholastic difficulties become obvious.
The prevalence is reported to increase with the severity of dementia in some studies (Teri et al, 1989). However, Cohen-Mansfield (1986) reported that within the demented group, the agitated group did not differ from the nonagitated in age, cognitive level or waking up at night. Studies of elderly residents of nursing homes that have not specified the medical status of their subjects have also reported the high frequency of restless behaviours. Cohen-Mansfield et al (1989) examined 408 residents aged 70-99 years (male 92, female 316) of a large suburban nursing home, and found that 93% manifested one or more agitated behaviours at least once a week during at least one nursing shift.
Akathisia and Restless Legs by Perminder Sachdev