By James R. Catterall, Edward A. Sheffield (auth.), Professor David A. Isenberg, Dr. Stephen G. Spiro (eds.)
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Immunotherapy all started in 1774 whilst the Dorset farmer Benjamin Jesty inoculated his spouse and sons with the pus from the teat of a cow struggling with cow pox, utilizing his wife's knitting needle as a vaccinating enforce. It has made sluggish development. in the meantime the technological know-how of Immunology has burgeoned rather a lot that if all immunologists learn each web page of the magazine of Immunology, not to mention the opposite Immunology journals, then they'd haven't any time left to put in writing for it.
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Arch Intern Med 141: 1005-1010. 14. Bacon PA (1993) Extra-articular rheumatoid arthritis. In: McCarty DJ, Koopman WJ (eds). Arthritis and allied conditions, 20th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger, 811-840. 15. Fishback N, Koss MN (1995) Pulmonary involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. m Med 1: 368-375. 16. Quismorio FP (1988) Clinical and pathologic features of lung involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Resp Med 9: 297 - 304. 17. Kolarz G, Scherak 0, Popp W, RischkaL, Thumb N, WottawaA, ZwichH (1993) Bronchoalveolar lavage in rheumatoid arthritis.
Lung Function Lung function tests are not specifically diagnostic, but can be very useful in confirmation of the pattern and extent of an abnormality. Also, once the level of lung function has been established, serial tests can be used to evaluate disease progression or the response to treatment. 1. Lung Volumes Measurement of lung volumes provides evidence of abnormalities in the airways, lung parenchyma, respiratory muscles, and compliance of the lungs or chest wall. The most important subdivisions of lung volume are: • Tidal volume (VT), the volume of air moved in or out in each breath, usually from functional residual capacity • Total lung capacity (TLC), the volume of air in the lungs after a maximal inspiration • Functional residual capacity (FRC), the lung volume at the end of a normal relaxed expiration The Respiratory System in Rheumatic Diseases 37 Sub-divisions of lung volume CD capacity To a t lll;lng ® Inspiratory reserve volume @ o Tidal volume Functional residual capacity ® Vital capacity ® Residual volume Figure I.
6. Obliterative Bronchiolitis Hyperinflated lungs or, less commonly, patchy interstitial infiltrates may occur in some patients with OB, unless there is emphysema as an independent feature in a patient with a rheumatic disease. However, in most of the cases the chest radiograph is normal. 7. Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia The idiopathic BOOP and secondary forms of proliferative bronchiolitis have similar radiographic appearances. Both are characterised by peripheral patches of consolidation or linear shadows on the chest radiograph .
Autoimmune Aspects of Lung Disease by James R. Catterall, Edward A. Sheffield (auth.), Professor David A. Isenberg, Dr. Stephen G. Spiro (eds.)