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By Donald S. Farner, James R. King and Kenneth C. Parkes (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 0122494075

ISBN-13: 9780122494079

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The different types of data classified by these criteria are summarized in Table IV. Clearly longitudinal (L) data are the most comprehensive and useful, followed by mixed longitudinal (ML), cross-sectional (CS) or interval (I), and mixed cross-sectional (MC) or static data, depending on the purpose of the analysis. C. TYPES O F ANALYSES Static data, of which records are measurements repeated over individuals of the same age, can be used for comparisons among subsamples or populations and for analyzing relationships among measurements within age groups.

Down with a distinct shaft and lateral barbs is found in the waterfowl, megapodes, ratites, and tinamous. The more common situation, however, is a short shaft with a terminal spray of unhooked barbs. Numerous specializations described by Fjeldsa are based on this type. b. Replacement of the Down. In grebes, there is a continuum of downy barbs and hooked feather barbs on the same shaft, thus replacement occurs gradually as the feather grows and the tip wears off. In birds with distinctly differentiated down and feather quills, the down may be of two types: prepennae, in which the down is replaced by a feather growing from the same follicle, sometimes with an intervening "second generation" of down, and the preplumulae, in which the down is replaced by the juvenal down.

Such decreases in many species, where mass recession ranged between 10 and 30% of adult weight, had previously been attributed to utilization of lipids during a prefledging phase of high energy demand, among other factors. Loss of mass by other species that accumulate large lipid deposits as nestlings, especially Procellariiformes, may involve metabolism of lipid as well, but there is no evidence bearing directly on this question. Contour and flight feathers begin their growth at different times in development and grow at different rates in different species.

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Avian Biology. Volume 7 by Donald S. Farner, James R. King and Kenneth C. Parkes (Eds.)

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