Biographical Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and by Fischbach PDF

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It was published in the magazine al-Majalla al-Jadida in 1932. In the meantime Mahfouz continued publishing series of short stories in different literary newspapers and magazines. In 1939 Mahfouz accepted the position of civil servant at the Ministry of Islamic Affairs where he worked until 1954. In 1939 Mahfouz published his first novel, Abath al-Qadr (Irony of fate). Initially, the novel was titled Hikmat Khufu (Wisdom of Cheops). The plot was based on the ideas of fatalism. The pharaoh, who lived about 2680 BCE, was told by an oracle that his son would not be able to inherit the throne, and that it would fall into the hands of Dedef, the son of the high priest of the temple Ra.

In March 1987, Saddam made him general secretary of the Ba‘th Party’s Northern Bureau, which encompassed the Kurdish regions of Iraq. In this capacity, al-Majid directly supervised the notorious 1988 Anfal campaign of genocide against the Kurds. He later served as the military governor of Kuwait during • 2007: Found guilty, given death sentence the harsh Iraqi occupation of the country from August 1990 until February 1991. He was appointed minister of the interior in March 1991, in time to take charge of the ferocious government crackdown on the Shi‘ite rebellion that flared up that month in the wake of Iraq’s defeat in the Gulf War.

Through representations of imaginary animals, Baya visually narrates fictional tales like those told by Scheherazade in Arabian Nights, according to Pe´le´gri (p. 10). Moreover, her use of detailed vegetal ornamentation suggests ‘‘arabesque’’ motifs of a kind visible in ceramics, tiles, textiles, and miniatures typical of Islamic art (Arabesques et jardins, 1989, p. 26). For this reason Frank Maubert finds that these paintings evoke ‘‘North African folklore’’ while preserving a ‘‘Muslim aesthetic’’ (1998, p.

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Biographical Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa by Fischbach


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