By Y. Nambu, T. Eguchi, K. Nishijima

ISBN-10: 9810223560

ISBN-13: 9789810223564

This article includes chosen papers of the particle theorist, Professor Nambu. It contains approximately forty papers which made primary contributions to our knowing of particle physics over the last few a long time. The unpublished lecture notice on string idea (1969) and the 1st paper on spontaneous symmetry breaking (1961) are retyped and incorporated. The e-book additionally includes a memoir of Professor Nambu on his learn occupation.

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**Extra resources for Broken Symmetry: Selected Papers of Y. Nambu (World Scientific Series in 20th Century Physics 13)**

**Sample text**

The symmetrical form (37 ), however, does not follow from the perturbation theory. The fourth order interaction is therefore also different. In fact the perturbation theory will not give a fourth order potential as simple as the present one. Thus far we have been confining ourselves to essentially non-relativistic treatments . Those regions where the distance of the particles is small and relativistic effects play a predominant role are out of consideration in the present investigation . Moreover, the difficulty of high singularities of the potential which haunts these regions is of a more profound origin and will only be solved with the general difficulties of the present quantum theory .

4. Problem of vacuum polarization Now we shall turn to the interpretation of the various terms of the S matrix. The starting point is that the probability amplitude for an electron going from x to x' in a time r is assumed to be given by T*, =(ro ez W (42) If, for example, we consider the self-energy of the electron, we have to do with the process : an electron and a photon start simultaneously at x and afterwards meet again at x', thereby giving rise to the matrix element 22 90 Y. NAMBU e rw S(r, x-2') rµD,(x-x').

They may be calculated in a similar manner. But the resulting fourth order potentials will be non-static with radial dependence essentially the same as in the case b). Consequently their order of magnitude will be smaller than the preceding ones. We shall not investigate these terms here. In the above results, a finite field mass p has been assumed. If p=0, they cannot be applied at once since some of the expressions diverge. 50) for 1C=0 is not known, but it may be left out of consideration since fortunately such a case does not occur actually.

### Broken Symmetry: Selected Papers of Y. Nambu (World Scientific Series in 20th Century Physics 13) by Y. Nambu, T. Eguchi, K. Nishijima

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