By Matthew A. Crenson
This e-book examines the relationship among the decline of the orphanage and the increase of welfare. Matthew Crenson argues that the prehistory of the welfare method was once performed out no longer at the degree of nationwide politics or category clash yet within the micropolitics of institutional administration. New preparations for baby welfare coverage emerged steadily as superintendents, traveling brokers, and charity officers answered to the problems that they encountered in operating orphanages or growing platforms that served as possible choices to institutional care. Crenson additionally follows the decades-long debate in regards to the relative benefits of kin care or institutional take care of based youngsters. Leaving negative young children at domestic with their moms emerged because the most widely applicable replacement to the orphanage, in addition to an formidable new perception of social reform. rather than sheltering weak young children in associations designed to remodel them into virtuous voters, the reformers of the revolutionary period attempted to combine negative young ones into the bigger society, whereas holding them from its perils.
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Extra resources for Building the Invisible Orphanage: A Prehistory of the American Welfare System
Mothers were to be protected by state laws governing the hours, safety, and wages of women workers. In time, the maternalist current in social welfare policy stirred the federal government to act as well. S. Children’s Bureau in 1913. And the bureau’s ﬁrst chief, Julia Lathrop, was largely responsible for the passage of the SheppardTowner Infancy and Maternity Protection Act of 1921, which offered The Decline of the Orphanage and the Invention of Welfare 21 federal grants to states for the support of maternal and child health clinics.
But the preventionist view of destitution did mean that the apportionment of blame would be an essential feature of American social policy, and that politically successful social policy would have to lift the responsibility for dependency from the shoulders of the poor themselves. If the poor were to blame for their own condition, the public could hardly be expected to help them. And without a politicized labor movement to organize them or a strong socialist party to mobilize them, the poor could not do much to help themselves—or their potential allies among the Progressive reformers.
In the United States, child-centered public policy began with the common school. It was one American social welfare institution that grew faster and larger than all of its European counterparts. Prussia, it was true, had been ﬁrst to establish free and compulsory primary education under Frederick the Great in the late eighteenth century, although the policy was not effectively enforced until 1810. Forty years later, however, American enrollment rates overtook Germany’s and continued to grow beyond them.
Building the Invisible Orphanage: A Prehistory of the American Welfare System by Matthew A. Crenson